by the end of用法及意思
by the end of意为“到……末为止”，后可跟过去时间与过去完成时连用，也可跟将来时间，而与将来时连用。
by the end of 后面接过去时间时，句子的时态通常用过去时态——比如过去完成时、一般过去时、过去进行时等。
By the end of用于表示时间的场合，往往含有“不迟于”的意味。
by the end of January
We are to complete the task by the end of the year.
有时 by the end of...所表示时间并不修饰谓语动词，而是修饰句中的非谓语动词，此时与句子时态无关。
如：We were working full steam ahead to finish the project by the end of April. 为了赶在四月底以前完成这个项目，我们全力以赴。（by the end of April 修饰不定式 to finish…）
强调在所提及的过去时间之前已完成的动作，句子暗示两个时间：一个是 by the end of 后面的过去时间，另wWW.ZQnf.cOm一个是“the end of + 过去时间”之前的时间。
如：By the end of last month, I had planted thousands of trees.
By the end of last month, he had been robbed at least three times.
I’d had a bellyful of his family by the end of the weekend.
By the end of the day we had sold over 2000 tickets.
By the end of that year Henry had collected more than a thousand foreign stamps.
By the end of the evening she had abandoned all pretence of being interested.
只表示动词发生在过去，不强调在所提及的过去时间之前已经完成，此时将整个的“by the end of + 过去时间”看作一个整体的过去时间。如：
By the end of that first year, I knew how totally unsuited we were to each other.
By the end of 1989 the group had assets of 3.5 billion francs.
Italy became a satellite state of Germany by the end of the 1930s.
意大利在 20 世纪 30 年代末成了德国的附庸。
By the end of the year, the rebels had control over the northern territories.
By the end of the century, France had made peace with Britain.
表示“by the end of + 过去时间”之前正在进行或发生的情况。
如：By the end of 1942, things were starting to change.
到了 1942 年年末，情况开始有了变化。
By the end of the week, they were all getting on each other’s nerves.
That man made me so angry that by the end of the meeting I was spitting blood!